Thesis on export competitiveness

Interview was also conducted with top managers and owners. The survey data was analyzed using factor analysis, MDS and cluster analysis techniques. The factor analysis identified 10 conceptually linked components. In addition, their impact on the export competitiveness of the export firms was analyze using the factor loadings, factor score coefficient results and the measurement of decision rules adopted by Vichea Besides, MDS in combination with cluster analysis were used. Findings: The significant barriers have had different perceived export barriers intensity on the export competitiveness of the firms.

The relevant paths will begin at sources and always end at sinks. Second, links with the largest SPC key-routes value are selected, where SPC is the number of times the link is traversed if one exhausts the search from all the sources to all the sinks in a citation network. Third, the end node of each key route becomes the starting point from which to search for the links with the largest SPC.

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The process is continued until each key route hits a sink. Simultaneously, a search backward from the start node of the key route s is made until a source is hit. This procedure based on forward and backward searches guarantees that the desired links with the largest SPC value are included in the main paths. Main path analysis is a method that has some limitations. CS number of citations in the sample, CWoS number of citations in web of science. Analysis by historiograph does not allow full confirmation of the hypothesis that the roots of international competitiveness theory come from classical theories of international trade.

Although the oldest among the forty most-cited publications in the sample relate to the works of Balassa Nos. The status of pioneering works should be attributed to publications from the end of the s, i. The most important period in the development of international competitiveness research is — The vertical shape of the historiograph suggests that the most ground-breaking publications were published exactly in this period and they still provide the most important theoretical basis for competitiveness studies.

These are works by Fragerberg No. The great majority of later publications contain references to these articles. No paper published after is included in the top 40 most-cited publications in the database created. The most recent publications in this ranking are written by Melitz, and Copeland and Taylor Melitz ; Copeland and Taylor The absence of papers published after and the presence of only two papers among the 40 most-cited records in the sample indicate that new publications have not proved to be significant, or maybe that they concentrate on different international competitiveness issues that are only slightly connected with the previously-identified core publications.

Of the publications in the years — relating to international competitiveness issues, only 60 of them have a citation in the sample. On average, each of these publications is cited in the sample only 1. The most influential most-cited publications focus on the impact of technology Freeman ; Montobbio ; Montobbio and Rampa ; Fagerberg et al.

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Unfortunately, a historiograph based on the relationships between papers published between and indicates only very slight connections among them, exactly as they have only slight connections with the publications from to This analysis shows that when the development of international competitiveness research after is taken into account, the idea that there is a commonly accepted theory of international competitiveness becomes more and more unreal.

In the next step of the study, I analyse more precisely the paths in the historiograph created Fig. Many paths connecting the oldest and newest most-cited publications can be identified, but the aim is to find the most important ones. I apply key-route main path analysis to find the core paths, i. Based on the assumption that the main international competitiveness topics are embedded in the governing structure of the knowledge diffusion paths, once the governing structure is made to surface through the key-route approach, the stories of international competitiveness speak for themselves.

The historiograph in Fig. This can be expected to be to the disadvantage of relatively recent papers. Main path analysis considers both the citations which a document receives and the documents it cites. A publication that links many publications and has many publications linking to it will probably be part of a main path. Dixit and Stiglitz Amable and Verspagen Anderson and Wincoop Markusen and Rutherford Kennedy or Van Beers and Van den Bergh Copeland and Taylor Audretsch and Feldman Krugman b or Krugman It underlines the role and character of competition in many markets, i. This means that models which assume perfect competition provide an inadequate description of how markets work.

Starting from the beginning of the s, the paths in international competitiveness diverge. Path no. Thus, path no. Path no 3 includes publications which focus on the impact of domestic environmental regulations on the international trade flow. Path no 4 consists of publications related to the determinants of production location and its impact on international competitiveness.

These main paths show that the development of the scientific international competitiveness literature concentrates on five main economic categories: technology, liberalization, environmental regulations, location and productivity. To verify this, I use a quite different method: word co-occurrence analysis, which is based not only on the most-cited documents but on all the publications in the sample.

In co-occurrence analysis, we assume that in each document there are sections, such as the title, abstract or keywords, that contain important terms. This co-occurrence method is a fruitful approach to examining a collection of documents through analysis of their co-occurring terms—that is, the words or phrases that appear together in designated spans of text in the same document. As a result of the analysis we obtain co-occurrence maps, which help to identify the various areas of research and understand the direction in which research is heading in the area analysed.

In my analysis, the titles, abstracts and keywords from publications are used as term sources and 18, unique terms are extracted from the sample. A minimum number of occurrences of 12 is set and terms meet the threshold. Finally, terms are obtained, from which terms not germane to the goals of the analysis are excluded, such as specific place names, general statistical terms and units of measurement of such things as time, quantity and rate. Four clusters in the international competitiveness literature — by term co-occurrence analysis. The three most important terms in the clusters identified are: cluster 1 trade, cost, international trade; cluster 2 export, price, exchange rate, cluster 3 FDI, scale, location, cluster 4 knowledge, institution, infrastructure.

There are clearly four clusters in the figure. This cluster groups together terms associated with trade: trade flow and international trade. We can distinguish two key topics in international competitiveness studies understood as the analysis of international trade. These are the influence of regulations and environmental policy on trade and the impact of cost changes on the trade flow.

This understanding of international competitiveness refers to classical and neoclassical theories of foreign trade which emphasize the importance of the price and non-price determinants of export growth, such as exchange rates and differences in income or in GDP level between trading economies. The trade and export clusters are very close to each other and from the theoretical point of view they relate to analyses of international competitiveness in the light of foreign trade theories.

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In this research area the impact of FDI, openness of the economy and economies of scale in the position of economies, industries and enterprises in the world market are mainly analysed. The first of these domains is related to the role of education, knowledge and human capital in increasing international competitiveness. In the second one, the impact of the quality of institutions and the business environment are analysed.

The third research area groups together terms associated with the regional aspect of international competitiveness, with a particular emphasis on city competitiveness. Analysis of Fig. We can speak about a polarization of research domains in the international competitiveness literature.

Two dominant clusters can be distinguished which together group the majority of key topics. Here, we have key topics such as cost, price, exchange rate, income and FDI, which are the determinants of international trade flows in the light of old and new foreign trade theories. It is worth noting that the network of lines between the terms in cluster 2 is much thicker than in cluster 1, which indicates that the terms grouped in the second cluster co-occur in the articles more often than those in the first.

The third cluster is a small one and consists of terms related to the globalization process and its impact on international competitiveness growth.

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The importance of the terms in cluster 3, shown by the size of the circle and the line density, is less than that of those in the first two clusters. In this study, using citations, network citation analysis, key-routes main path methodology and term co-occurrence analysis, I have investigated the growth pattern in the international competitiveness literature and identified the core journals and authors and the main paths of knowledge diffusion and topics in the international competitiveness literature in the discipline of economics.

To the best of my knowledge this is one of the largest scale bibliometric studies conducted on literature reviews in economics and the first related to the international competitiveness concept. The study concerns the theoretical debate about international competitiveness which concentrates on the lack of theoretical foundations of many of its concepts and on the lack of a generally accepted theory of international competitiveness.

Traditionally, the international competitiveness concept is explained in the literature on the basis of international trade theories derived from the works of Adam Smith and David Ricardo Krugman and Obstfeld ; Smit It is a paradox that in the literature Krugman is often considered one of the most unrepentant opponents of international competitiveness analysis, especially at the macro level. Five paths of knowledge diffusion have been identified, and these at the same time indicate the mainstream economic theories important to the development of international competitiveness studies: endogenous growth paths 1 and 3 , new trade theories paths 1, 2, 3 and 5 , location theory path 4 and new economic geography theory path 4.

The concept of international competitiveness seems to be based on so many theories that a single generally accepted theory of international competitiveness may never be accepted. The study has also identified the diversity of key topics within the concept analysed see Figs. This abundance of key terms supports the eclectic approach to defining and measuring international competitiveness by combining different schools of thought and multiple measurements Chaudhuri and Ray ; Banwet et al.

The results indicate that the importance of research domains has changed over time. Initially, there was a dominance of publications analysing the impact of price and non-price determinants Arbatli ; Tsen , based on international trade theories on export growth; in the last decade, the importance of studies where the impact of human capital, environmental regulations, location and productivity on trade flows has greatly increased.

The analysis also confirms the existence of two schools of thought on competitiveness at the country level. On the other hand, management studies support the Porter notion of competitiveness at the country level, i. The results of this study should be regarded as preliminary and requiring verification.

It is hoped, however, that they will have an important role in discussion on the evolution of international competitiveness theory among disciples of economics. Further analyses are needed. From the methodological point of view, it would be worthwhile to carry out a more in-depth analysis of the relationship between the key research domains identified. Conducting a similar analysis by replacing the bibliometric indicator, i. The limitations related to the nature of bibliometric are very well understood.

They are related to the quality of citations excessive, selective, secondary, negative and erroneous citations, self-citations , selection of documents and journals exclusion of certain types of documents, changes in journal titles, spelling differences and errors, inconsistencies related to the indexing of subjects and incomplete coverage of the social sciences in web of science Ferreira et al. Additionally, the database created does not index books, book chapters or textbooks on international competitiveness.

This may be treated as the most significant constraint of bibliometric studies Ferreira et al. Nevertheless, some of these weaknesses have been removed by using the two additional databases and through careful verification of the bibliometric records used. Web of Science covers 12, indexed journals from the year Google Scholar is an unpublished bibliometric database offered by Google, and currently it covers metrics of articles published during the years — Kumar et al.

Bradford proposed the concepts of core and scatter. Core refers to the small number of journals that publish the most papers in a field; scatter refers to the spread of the literature over many publications Bradford Financial support from the NCN is gratefully acknowledged. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. A systematic retrieval of international competitiveness literature: a bibliometric study.

Open Access. First Online: 05 August The authors are from 67 countries and represent institutions. These publications have a total of 27, references cited, citations in the sample and 77, citations in WoS. The first publications in the sample appeared in the s, and over the next two and a half decades scientific interest in international competitiveness was small and limited to a few research papers annually.

We can observe three breakthroughs in the number of publications on international competitiveness: the first in , when the annual number of publications reached the number published during the whole of the previous decade, and the remaining two in and with doublings of the number of annually published works. Therefore, only from can we talk about a boost in the interest in international competitiveness issues, because thereafter the number of publications related to international competitiveness ranged from 80 to per year.

This was mainly due to an explosion in competitiveness studies at the region and city levels and studies related to regulations, institutions and clustering processes and their impact on international competitiveness growth. Open image in new window. Source: HistCite calculation based on the database created. Fourth, in addition to identifying the most important publications and the main paths of the scientific development of international competitiveness concepts, I also aim to identify the key research domains in international competitiveness studies.

For this purpose, I employ term co-occurrence analysis. By applying the term co-occurrence technique, we analyse the distance between two terms, where a term is understood as a sequence of nouns in text documents. The more often two terms co-occur in the same line of text, the smaller the distance between them. A three-step term identification process Van Eck is followed.

Destination-Specific Export Competitiveness of the Hog and Cattle Sectors in Ontario and Canada

First, a linguistic filter is applied to the corpus in order to identify noun phrases. The filter selects all the word sequences that consist exclusively of nouns and adjectives and that end with a noun, and converts plural noun phrases into singular ones. Next, the terms identified are placed on a map in such a way that the distance between any two items reflects the similarity between them. The degree of similarity is calculated using the association strength Eq. The terms identified can be grouped into clusters according to their similarity, and every cluster may be seen as one topic Van Eck et al.

They mainly analyse the determinants of competitive advantages and patterns in international trade growth, such as trade liberalization Balassa , intra-industry effects Melitz , economies of scale, product differentiation Dixit and Stiglitz ; Krugman a , b , , regulations and environmental policy Tobey ; Jaffe et al. The Krugman thesis, that international competitiveness discourse is quite heavily focused on international trade, can therefore be confirmed.

Moreover, according to Krugman, defining and studying international competitiveness using international trade indicators is an appropriate approach for analysis of the subject Krugman Verspagen B. The results are strongly correlated with the ranking of most-cited publications. The most frequently cited author is Krugman, whose permanent criticism of research on international competitiveness, particularly at the macro level, was a strong impetus for further studies in this area.

The second most-cited economist dealing with the analysis of international competitiveness is Fragerberg, with four publications in the sample and fifty citations in it. Third place in the ranking belongs to Balassa, whose two publications, however, have already been cited 2. A second important part of this analysis is not only identification of the most-cited publications and authors, but also to establish networks between them. The best tool for visualization of these relationships is a historiograph Fig. A historiograph is a time-based network diagram of the papers in a bibliography and their citation relationships to each other.

I have attempted to trace the evolution of international competitiveness research in economics. HistCite enables one to draw a citation network among highly cited papers, and from this one gets a feel for the evolution of the subject or research front over the years. What HistCite does is to reduce the clutter: in the huge population of papers and citations that constitute the sample, one would not get anywhere if one tried to view all the citation links. By clever use of algorithms and networking tools, HistCite prunes many of the not so important links and leaves one with a manageable and compact scientograph.

I use Pajek software to determine the SPC values for each citation link and then to search for the key-route paths. Among the 40 most often-cited publications in the sample connected by links , eighteen of them form the backbone of the international competitiveness network. Source: Author's own elaboration using VOSviewer software.

To confirm the thesis that international competitiveness research domains have much changed in the last decade, I conduct term co-occurrence analysis once more, but this time only based on documents published between and Fig.

Thesis on export competitiveness

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A systematic retrieval of international competitiveness literature: a bibliometric study

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